The resilience strategy of the city of Dakar document has identified the following elements as the principal challenges of the city:

Demographic pressure and fast urbanization More than 10% of the country population is on 0.04% of its national territory.
High unemployment rate in youth Unemployment rate in youth at 16.8% and 23% of underemployed
Growing demand for energy 56.9% of the national consumption: 11.8 power cuts each month
Low sanitation capacity +400,000 citizens of Dakar are not connected to the public network of solid waste collection; Between 10% and 30% do not have a working treatment of liquid wastes
Climate change More than 300 buildings and 60% of beaches could disappear by 2080 because of the advancement of the sea
Low community engagement and beggary Irresponsible and uncivil behaviors of the people of Dakar. Close to 30,000 children are begging in the streets of Dakar
Low coordination between central and municipal authorities Overlap in distribution of responsibilities between central power and the city in key resilience domains (sanitation, energy, etc.)